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On April 24, 2024, the European Union published in the OJEU Directive (EU) 2024/1226 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 April 2024 on the definition of criminal offences and penalties for the violation of Union restrictive measures and amending Directive (EU) 2018/1673 . The objective of Directive (EU) 2024/1226 is to ensure the effective application of the Union’s restrictive measures, adopted on the basis of Article 29 TEU and Article 215 TFEU, by establishing a set of common minimum rules concerning the definitions of criminal offence, effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal and non-criminal penalties, as well as obligations in all Member States for investigating, prosecuting and punishing breaches of EU restrictive measures.